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TB disease, Causes and How to Overcome It

Causes of TB Disease
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria Mikobakterium tuberculosis. These bacteria are rod-shaped acid-resistant and thus also known as Batang Resistant Acid (BTA). This bacterium was first discovered by Robert Koch on March 24, 1882, to commemorate his services so that the bacteria are given the name of Koch bacillus. In fact, TB disease of the lungs is sometimes referred to as the Koch Pulmonum (KP).

Mode of transmission of TB Disease 
TB disease is usually transmitted through contaminated air with Mikobakterium tuberculosis bacteria that are released at the time of TB patient coughs, and in children the source of infection is generally derived from adult TB patients. These bacteria often enter when and accumulated in the lungs will breed a lot (especially in people with low immune system), and can be spread through blood vessels or lymph nodes. That is why infectious TB can infect virtually all body organs such as lungs, brain, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, bone, lymph nodes, etc., nevertheless organs

When Mikobakterium tuberculosis successfully infect the lungs, it soon will grow colonies of bacteria that form globular (rounded). Usually through a series of immunological reactions TB bacteria will endeavor inhibited through the formation of wall around the bacteria by lung cells. The mechanism of formation of the wall was made of the surrounding tissue into scar tissue and the TB bacteria will become dormant (resting). Dormant forms is what is actually seen as tubercles on the x-ray examination.

In some people with good immune systems, this form will remain dormant throughout his life. Whereas in those with immune systems that are less, these bacteria will have breeding tubercles grow so much. That many of these tubercles form a space inside the lungs. This space that would become the source of production of sputum (phlegm). Someone who has been producing sputum can be estimated is experiencing positive growth and excess tubercles infected with tuberculosis.

Increased transmission of infection has been reported at this time, many linked to several conditions, including worsening socio-economic conditions, not optimal public health service facilities, the increasing number of people who do not have a place to live and the epidemic of HIV infection. Besides a weak body resistance / decreased, and the number of bacteria is a virulence factor that plays an important role in the occurrence of TB infection.

Symptoms of TB DiseaseSymptoms of TB disease can be divided into general symptoms and specific symptoms that arise according to the organ involved. Clinical picture is not very typical, especially in new cases, making it quite difficult to diagnose clinically.
Symptoms of systemic / general
  • Fever is not too high that lasts longer, usually felt at night with night sweats. Sometimes an attack of influenza-like fever and intermittent nature.
  • Decreased appetite and weight.
  • Cough-cough for over 3 weeks (may be accompanied by blood).
  • Feelings of not feeling (malaise), weakness.

Specific symptoms 
  • Depending on which organs are affected, in case of partial bronchial obstruction (the channel leading to the lungs) due to pressure of enlarged lymph nodes, will lead to sound "wheezing" sound accompanied by shortness of breath weakened.
  • If there is dirongga pleural fluid (lung packing), may be accompanied by complaints of chest pain.
  • If the bone, there will be symptoms such as bone infection at some point be able to form channels and lead to the overlying skin, in this estuary will discharge pus.
  • In children can affect the brain (wrapping a layer of the brain) and is referred to as meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain), the symptoms are high fever, a decrease in consciousness and seizures.

In pediatric patients who do not cause symptoms, TB can be detected if there are known contacts with adult TB patients. Approximately 30-50% of children in contact with adult pulmonary TB patient gives a positive tuberculin test results. In children ages 3 months - 5 years who live with adult pulmonary TB patients with smear-positive, 30% were reported infected based on serological examination / blood.
Enforcement of Diagnosis

If someone is suspected of contracting tuberculosis, then a few things that need to be done to establish the diagnosis are:
  • Anamnesa both to patients and their families.
  • Physical examination.
  • Laboratory tests (blood, sputum, cerebrospinal fluid).
  • Examination of anatomic pathology (PA).
  • X-ray chest (thorax photo).
  • Tuberculin test.

Treatment of TB Disease.TB treatment takes longer than treating other types of bacterial infections. If infected with TB, patients should take antibiotics for at least six to nine months. Proper treatment of tuberculosis disease and duration of treatment depends on your age, overall health, drug resistance, type of tuberculosis (latent or active) and its location in the body.

The immune system (defense) can fight the infection and stop the spread of bacteria. The immune system eventually by forming scar tissue surrounding the tuberculosis bacterium, and isolating the entire body. Tuberculosis that occurs after initial exposure of bacteria is often called primary tuberculosis. If the body is able to form scar tissue (fibrosis) around the TB bacteria, the infection is contained in an inactive state. Such individuals usually have no symptoms of tuberculosis and can not spread TB to others.

If a person is infected with latent tuberculosis, may need to take only one medication for the treatment of tuberculosis. Active tuberculosis, especially if it is drug-resistant strain (resistant), would require several drugs at once. The most common drug used to treat tuberculosis, among others, Isoniazid, Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane), Ethambutol (Myambutol), and Pyrazinamide.
Side Effects TB Treatment

Tuberculosis treatment side effects are not common but can be serious when it occurs. All TB drugs can be highly toxic to the liver especially people with symptoms of tuberculosis are also accompanied with liver complications (remember that the liver serves to neutralize toxins in the body). It gives a picture that needs a referral or prescription for taking these drugs. Common side effects caused include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, yellow skin (jaundice / jaundice), dark urine, fever that lasts three days or more and have no obvious cause.

After several weeks of people who are infected will not be transmitted may begin to feel better. It is important that the complete treatment of tuberculosis in a consistent, therapeutic and consumption of drugs exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Stopping treatment too early or skipping doses can allow the surviving bacteria to become resistant to drugs, leading to an infection that is much more dangerous and difficult to treat. To help people stay consistent, therapeutic treatment directly observed tuberculosis is sometimes recommended. In this approach, a health care worker managing patient medications.


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